Volleyball – Mind Your Business

This Is Your Brain on Officiating

By Gloria Cox

Have you ever found yourself in the middle of a match feeling like the Scarecrow from The Wizard of Oz, singing, “If I Only Had a Brain?” Hopefully not, but have you ever wondered if you have the correct brain for officiating?

Do you find it easy to make a quick decision based on a minimum amount of information or do you need time to gather all of the details, process and ponder, and then render a decision? Does your brain retain information better when it is received visually or do you need to hear the facts? Do you dwell on mistakes and rethink your decisions or do you accept that, even with your best effort, you will make mistakes and move forward? The good news is that we can help our brain improve in the areas that are important for officiating.

When training to become an official, we read the rulebook, go to clinics, watch matches, discuss volleyball, etc. I discovered long ago that I need to write down information in order to remember it better. It is not sufficient for me to hear the instructor at a training session or even see the information on a screen, even though I know that I am primarily a visual learner, but the act of writing it down seems to imbed the information into my brain. I have a friend who says that most of the things he has learned over the years have been from discussions, where he can review and analyze situations with other officials. Another friend watches matches, studies the calls of the referees, watches their methods and that helps her decipher what she has read. We all have brains that can benefit from a variety of learning methods, but knowing what works best for your brain can help you optimize that process. 

Do you have difficulty clearing your mind of the day’s events and focusing at the beginning of a match? Experiments have been conducted where people had greatly improved results if they began thinking about an activity before actually performing it. Watching the warmup and talking about the upcoming match, rather than your post-match dinner plans, can be more beneficial than we might realize. Think of it as priming your brain for the match. Of course, it goes without saying that preconceived ideas about the outcome of the match can prove to be detrimental to the process. 

Do you have difficulty falling asleep at night because your mind will not let you stop thinking of the day’s events? It is important for an official to be able to let the previous point go in order to completely focus on the upcoming point. People who tend to be perfectionists may have the most difficulty with that, but a referee needs to have full brain power for the current point without sharing some of that power with past points.

Officials need to learn to look forward during a match with the understanding that, despite best efforts, all decisions may not be perfect, but nothing can be achieved by looking back during the match. 

Do you study a menu at a restaurant as if a test will be given later? Or do you look at it, decide fairly quickly what you want and wait for the waiter to return to take your order? Probably the most difficult aspect of officiating is gathering information quickly and making a snap decision. Malcolm Gladwell, in his bestselling book, Blink, says, “Snap judgments and rapid cognition take place behind a locked door.” In other words, we do not always understand the process of seeing a situation, recognizing a fault and reacting appropriately, but officials do it all the time. Gladwell says further, “It’s one thing to acknowledge the enormous power of snap judgments … but quite another to place our trust in something so seemingly mysterious.” We have all been challenged about a decision and questioned ourselves about what we saw, but our whistle “just went off” because we recognized a fault and acted accordingly.

Since we have filled our brain with training and knowledge, we need to trust our brain to help us make the right decisions and not question that process. When an entirely new situation arises, your brain will automatically draw on the experiences of past matches and apply that knowledge to the current situation.

A young referee, who was complimented after a match on a job well done, commented that he would feel much better about each match when he had “more matches under his belt,” so that he would not be surprised when a new situation arose. He was wise beyond his years. 

To answer the question posed at the beginning of this article, we all have the correct brain for officiating, but we need to:

1. Discover our own best method of getting information into our brains.

2. Prepare our brains before the match by discarding thoughts of the day and focusing on volleyball.

3. Train our brains to make one snap decision after another without dwelling on past decisions.

4. Train ourselves to trust our brains to make the correct decisions even though we may not always understand the process.

Basketball – No Substitute for Awareness


By Albert J. Battista

There is more to know than just foul or violation. Commonly astute officials might have heard once to have an awareness to what type of offense and defense each team is using. All of which is good, but officials can go deeper with more knowledge about the game and how it changes every few minutes. Two of those deeper understandings are picking up on the personality of each game and the substitution patterns. Knowing each separates the good from the great.

Game personality. We know that individual games have their own personalities. There are conference rivalries, non-conference rivalries, blowout games, games where every possession matters, games that are very chippy, etc. Going into the game, it is helpful to have a sense of what personality the game may take beforehand. If not, you have to identify the game’s personality right away.

For example, Xavier and Cincinnati is an intense rivalry. The crosstown teams know each other, given the universities are within a few miles of each other. Often in these types of match-ups, the game will have started before it actually starts — social media can be used beforehand to stew emotions. In these games, officials need to be aware of dead-ball situations and  an increased likelihood for unsporting behavior.

Conversely, you may be involved in game that is going really well with everyone behaving very sportingly. Then out of the blue someone gets a little excitable on the bench. In those cases it may not be beneficial to immediately issue a technical foul.

In either situation, officials need to know the personality of the game and be aware of the context of the game so they understand when something is out of character for the game. Lacking an understanding of the context of a game and adding fuel to a fire with a technical foul will not help the game. It wakes everyone up and can make the game more challenging for the crew.

Substitutions. As the game goes on, dig deeper to figure out why a substitute is coming in the game. Some reasons a substitute may be coming into the game include: to shoot threes, block shots, play defense, disrupt, give or take a foul, playing time, etc.

Every time a substitution occurs, ask yourself why. Sometimes it may be that the player is in foul trouble. Or it may be the team’s normal substitution pattern for that player to get a rest.

However, be aware of abnormal situations. When a starter leaves the game three minutes into the first quarter (or half) with no fouls, a red flag should go up in your mind.

Throughout the game, be aware of the normal substitution patterns of the teams. Awareness of patterns can allow a better understanding of what may be required of you and your coverage. Know each team’s first player off the bench. Who is the team’s spark plug? Who is the team’s post presence?

Some substitutions to look for:

  • First substitute into the game.
  • Player goes out for foul trouble.
  • Impact substitutions.
  • First substitute of second half.
  • Post player gets substituted with no foul trouble.

The team’s stats help to provide likely scenarios for who and what those players may be. Past experience with a team can also be helpful. In a pregame, discuss who has had the teams before and what they picked up from that previous experience. Who is the key scorer, the key defender, the key substitute, etc. Additionally, know the makeup of the players’ personalities. Is a certain player going to be someone who has a calm head and can be used as an ally or is a player going to be someone who has a hot head and may need more awareness?

Take a situation where a team quickly gets behind, 14-0, and the coach substitutes all five players. Be aware of the psychological makeup of the entire team following that type of substitution. The team may be upset and become increasingly frustrated. No player enjoys being taken out of a game, especially after falling quickly behind. Further, the coach may take the team’s struggles out on the crew. Those are all important context situations for the crew to be aware of and to aid them in carrying out their duties.

A significant substitution situation that crews must pick up on is when a team substitutes out a post player who is not in foul trouble. The team may be trying to pick up the pace of the game, to start running or to start pressing.

Another possibility is the player is a team’s sixth player who is good enough to start but is used as a spark plug off the bench. That can be picked up when you have had a team before.

Others, like former North Carolina coach Dean Smith, played their entire bench in the first half. Coach Smith was believed to have done that to get meaningful experience out of players and to wear the other team down.

Be sure to monitor the beginning and end of the substitution process. Not having the appropriate number of players on the court after a substitution can rear its ugly head for officials. Each crewmember is wise to count the players before resuming play, whether that is a substitution, timeout, quarter break or halftime intermission.

Further, you must know the substitution rules. When a player is replaced, he or she cannot re-enter until the clock has legally started and time has gone off the clock. In order to correctly officiate, know who was subbing in and who the substitutes are.

There is more to awareness than properly judging fouls and violations.

Albert J. Battista, Washington D.C., is a longtime high school and college basketball official, an IAABO rules interpreter and an NBA observer

Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Career Opportunities | Contact Us