Football – Say ‘Hi’ to the New Guy


By Jon Bible

If you’re used to working on a crew with the same people from week to week, you know that you can quickly reach a comfort level. Everyone knows what to expect from each other on and even off the field.

I’ve been fortunate to have been a part of some great crews on which everyone got along well, had fun and officiated beautifully. On the flip side, I’ve been part of groups that didn’t get along so well and a couple that were dysfunctional nightmares off and on the field.

As has been written many times, a good referee is more than a penalty announcer — he is a crew chief responsible for setting the right tone and getting the best performance out of each crew member and the crew as a whole. A vital aspect of that role is handling new additions to the crew. The new member may be coming on board for one game or for longer. As officials move on and off the roster from year to year, coordinators have to balance crews in terms of years of experience, meaning that, in a given year, one or more crews might be reconstituted. Injuries, family responsibilities and other issues may lead to changes as well.

How I deal with new additions depends on whether it will be for one game or the foreseeable future. I want a temporary replacement to feel comfortable, but the substitute is not really becoming a member of our family and need not have the sense of ownership. I will telephone or email him a few days in advance, tell him we’re looking forward to working with him and make sure that he knows our plans — when we will meet for dinner, go the stadium, have our pregame and do film review, etc. If we need to meet somewhere to drive to the game site, we’ll work out the logistics of that as well.

I will also ensure that we have a more comprehensive pregame than might otherwise be the case. My attitude on pregames is that I assume each person knows his keys and position mechanics so that our focus can be on how we will communicate and intersect with each other. At the start of the year, we are very thorough because there will be rule and mechanics changes to deal with, and even if some or all of us have worked together in the past, we must refresh our memories on what we have been doing and discuss how we could do things better. But as the year wears on, we don’t go through the A-B-C’s of the kicking, running, passing game, etc. each week; instead, we concentrate on what did and did not go well last week.

When a new official joins the crew as a temporary replacement, however, we pretty much go back to the first-game type of pregame. Even though everyone in the conference or association who works each position should have the same keys and mechanics, we still need to cover things like when the referee or umpire will spot the ball, who watches whom on free kicks, which officials key which receivers when there are three or four receivers on one side, etc. To make the newcomer feel a part of things, I assign him some topic to address, same as the other crew members. I stress that if anything seems amiss on the field, I want him, just like anyone else, to stop the game if necessary and raise the question. I also ask him what he feels he needs from each of us.

My experience is that younger one-game substitutes are always going to adapt to our way of doing things because they’re too scared to do otherwise. If they haven’t been around the track that many times, they may need a bit more coaching than a veteran, but they never make waves. As for veterans, 98 percent are willing to adapt to how our crew handles things like relaying new balls in, enforcing penalties and communicating. That is as it should be, for it makes far more sense for one person to change things to accommodate six others than vice versa. On a handful of occasions, however, I have had someone come in with the attitude, “I’ve always done it this way and I’m not changing.” Then I have to decide which way to go. If it’s something minor, like how a linesman communicates with me between downs, I have generally adapted on the theory that it’s not worth giving blood over. If, on the other hand, it’s something that could really affect how we work the game, I will tell him as politely as possible (privately if feasible) that I think we need to handle things our way and that he needs to come on board. Ultimately, the referee is the final authority and on occasion must exert that authority. If the new person refuses to go along, we’ll get by as best we can and then I will take it up with the coordinator.

If the new member is joining us for the year, I think there is more of a “family” aspect involved. We are going to be together each week for several months and will have many ups and downs along the way. It is important that we get off on the right foot. In that instance, I will go further than I would with a temporary substitute and find out what I can about our new addition’s family, background, job, likes, dislikes, etc. That will help me figure out how best to integrate him into our crew given the other personalities. If he has been in the conference before, I may talk with other referees to find out what I can about him. Officials tend to be Type A personalities with healthy egos. A bunch of middle-aged folks with such attributes who are pretty well set in their ways is going to have any chance of functioning harmoniously only if each member recognizes what makes the others tick and is prepared to do some giving and taking. Those who have been together for a while will already have been through it, so the key is to figure out what must be done to accommodate the new addition. If he tends to get down on himself, we know we may need to try harder to build his confidence than we may with someone else.

When a newcomer appears, a true test of the crew chief is his ability to effectively integrate that person into the crew so everyone is immediately clicking on all cylinders. If the chief does his homework and is sensitive to the needs of everyone involved, he will almost certainly succeed. If, on the other hand, the chief takes a cavalier approach to things or is too negative, dismissive or dictatorial, the results can be disastrous.

Jon Bible is a veteran football official from Austin, Texas. He is a referee in the United Football League.

Referee Magazine(This article was published in the 01/12 issue of Referee Magazine.)

Football – Wild Wild Card

Pro Plays Provide Unusual Rulings


By George Demetriou

With the changing of the calendar from one year to the next come the NFL playoffs. The league’s postseason begins with the Wild Card round. As we head into this season’s playoffs, let’s review plays from three of last year’s games. Although in most cases NFL rules are vastly different than high school or college rules, amateur officials can learn from the plays.

Thanks to Mike Pereira, former NFL vice president of officiating and now a member of the Fox Sports broadcast team, for his assistance.

Green Bay at Philadelphia. The Eagles punted on fourth and one from their 23 yardline. Philadelphia punter Sav Rocca kicked 36 yards to the Green Bay 41 yardline. The ball struck the Packers’ Brandon Underwood on the foot and was recovered by Philadelphia’s Omar Gaither.

Underwood was deemed to have touched the ball because he was not “passive” when he was overpowered into the ball by a Philadelphia player. Passive is defined as standing in the area of the ball without blocking an opponent. If a player is passive and is knocked into the ball, he is deemed not to have touched the ball. Since Underwood was blocking, he was responsible for the touch.

In both high school and college, Underwood would have been the victim of forced touching (NFHS 6-2-4; NCAA 6-3-4) and deemed to not have touched the ball. The ball would have been awarded to Green Bay. As it turned out, the Eagles did not score on the new series. David Akers missed a 41-yard field goal.

With 4:02 to play in the game, the Eagles scored a touchdown to trail, 21-16, and went for a two-point try. Quarterback Michael Vick completed a pass in the back of the end zone to Brent Celek, but Celek had stepped on the endline before catching the pass. He was flagged for an illegal touch. Initially referee Pete Morelli announced the try was not successful; however, at least one of the officiating crew members stepped up and reminded Morelli that the penalty for an illegal touch is not a loss of down. Since Celek caught the ball for what would have been a successful try, the Packers had to accept the penalty to negate the score. The Eagles got a re-try from the seven yardline. The replayed try was unsuccessful.

Under NFHS rules, Celek’s foul would be illegal participation. Celek voluntarily went out of bounds and returned (9-6-1). The 15-yard penalty would be enforced under the all-but-one principle from the previous spot and the try would be replayed from the 18 yardline.

In NCAA play, the foul is illegal touching. Celek went out of bounds and touched a forward pass before it was touched by an opponent or an official (7-3-4). The penalty is loss of down at the previous spot so the try would not be replayed.

Baltimore at Kansas City.

Chiefs quarterback Matt Cassel went back to pass and was hit by Baltimore’s Lardarius Webb while he was attempting to pull the ball back. The ruling on the field was that Cassel fumbled and the ball was recovered by the Ravens. Kansas City challenged and the call was reversed to an incomplete pass.

That is the infamous NFL “tuck” rule. Once a player moves his arm forward to pass the ball, he is considered to be in the act of passing until he totally tucks back to his body. Under NFHS and NCAA rules, that is a fumble. Cassel was not attempting to pass the ball and his arm was not moving forward when the ball came loose (NFHS 2-31-2 Note; NCAA 2-19-2b).

New York Jets at Indianapolis.

The Jets trailed, 16-14, but had the ball first and 10 at their 46 yardline with 53 seconds to play. Mark Sanchez completed a pass to Braylon Edwards, who was tackled by Jacob Lacey. The ball came loose as a result of the hit with Edwards falling on the ball. Incomplete or a catch and a fumble? It was ruled the latter and the review confirmed the ruling.

To make a catch, possession must be maintained while going to the ground. On that play, the receiver maintained an upright position while making the catch; it was the subsequent tackle that took him to the ground. Edwards got both feet down and was not going to the ground. The contact by the defender knocked the ball loose. The play should be called exactly the same way under NFHS and NCAA rules: a catch and a fumble.

Earlier there had been a critical call involving contact with a kicker. The Jets led, 14-13, with 3:02 to play in the game. Indianapolis’ Taj Smith ran into New York punter Steve Weatherford and was flagged for running into the kicker. Although it was only a five-yard penalty, it gave the Jets a first down.

The issue was whether or not Smith was blocked into Weatherford. The ruling was that Smith was not blocked into the kicker. He regained his balance after he was pushed, and he could have avoided Weatherford.

In NFHS and NCAA, if blocking the defender into the kicker or holder is the sole reason for the contact, there is no foul (NFHS 9-4-5d; NCAA 9-1-16a-5).

George Demetriou has been a football official since 1968. He lives in Colorado Springs, Colo.

Referee Magazine(This article was published in the 09/13 issue of Referee Magazine.)

Ken Stabler’s Death Evokes Legendary ‘Holy Roller’ Play


The San Diego Chargers were leading the Oakland Raiders, 20-14, in a 1978 battle when, with 10 seconds left in the game, Oakland quarterback Kenny Stabler was tackled as he tried to pass and fumbled the ball forward. Raider Pete Banazak batted the ball further forward toward tight end Dave Casper, who did the same thing until the ball bounced into the end zone. Casper jumped on the ball for a touchdown. The Raiders won the game, 21-20. Referee Jerry Markbreit ruled that Stabler’s fumble had not been intentional, but Stabler later confessed that he had indeed fumbled the ball on purpose and Banazak and Casper went on record saying they helped the ball along for the score. To close the obvious loophole in the rule, the NFL added a regulation that says that in the event of any fourth-down fumble or fumble in the final two minutes of either half, only the player who actually fumbled the ball can recover it and run with it. If any other offensive player recovers the ball, he cannot advance it; the ball is declared dead and is returned to the spot of the original fumble.

View Video: Top Controversial Plays: The ‘Holy Roller’ (YouTube)

Football – Oklahoma Replay Ruling

An Oklahoma judge declined to intervene in a request by the Oklahoma City public school district to replay a playoff game with a  disputed call. Read the full text of the decision below.  The New York Times gives a summary of the situation.  Referee Magazine will run an in-depth examination of the story and issues involved, from an officiating perspective, in a future issue.

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Football – Oh, S—!

How do coaches perceive you? A former NFL referee asks the question in a most colorful way.


By Jeffrey Stern
Referee senior editor

I’m guessing you can fill in the blanks in the title of this column. If you haven’t used the word even once in your life, I feel confident that you’ve at least heard it a time or two.

The title is part of a mantra Red Cashion, the great former NFL referee, told me once a long time ago. Red said, “You want to be a ‘Thank God’ official, not an “Oh, s —“ official.

Red was referring the reaction coaches have when you walk on the field before the game. You hope they feel confident in your abilities, that you’ll hustle, get the judgment calls correct and enforce penalties properly. So when you walk on the field, the coaches say aloud or to themselves, “Thank God I have this crew tonight.”

Coaches being coaches, you can do all of the things mentioned above and they will still have the feeling, “Oh, s —! Them again!” Likely something happened the last time you had that team and the coach can’t separate the crew from the fact that his fullback fumbled on the opponent’s one yardline, his star wideout dropped a sure touchdown pass in the end zone or the opposing kicker nailed a 47-yard field goal on the final play of the game. None of which is your fault, of course, but there is that connection.

Once you get labeled as an “Oh s —“ crew it’s hard to shake that tag. I’ve worked for coaches who felt they got jobbed by us 20 years ago. And maybe we did screw up that one time. We’ve had them every year since without incident, but the coach just can’t shake the memories of that one game.

Sadly you can go from a “Thank God” crew to an “Oh, s—“ crew in the wink of an eye. But the opposite is a tougher task.

The way you don’t want to become a “Thank God” crew is bad-mouthing another one. I’ve heard about coaches saying to an official, “I know we’re going to get a fair shake from you tonight. Not like last week.” When the official asks to whom he is referring, the coach only too happily coughs up the name of the previous crew. To which the official replies, “Oh, yeah. They’re awful. You’ve got the A-team tonight.”

Way to go, genius. You just fell into the trap. First of all, do you know for sure the coach really got screwed the week before? Or is he trying to curry favor tonight? Secondly, if he says that about another crew, do you honestly think he’d hesitate to tell next week’s crew the same about you? Right or wrong? Heck, maybe he says that to every crew.

If you are assigned to a team you’ve never had before, you have a golden opportunity to make the great first impression everyone talks about. Get in there, bust your butt and maybe you’ll find yourself on that coach’s preferred list. At least you’ll stay off his, umm, you-know-what list.

Referee Magazine(This column stemmed from an interview published in the February 2014 MyReferee issue of Referee Magazine.)

Football – Five Minutes with Tom Ritter

Southeastern Conference referee Tom Ritter talks tough calls and finger whistles.


Hometown: Nashville, Tenn.
Profession: Business consultant for an industrial supply company.
Officiating: Began officiating in 1976 while a junior at Rice University. Joined the Southeastern Conference (SEC) in 2000 and is currently a referee. Key assignments include the 2003 and 2012 SEC championship games, the 2011 Fiesta Bowl, the 2010 Alamo Bowl and the 2007 Orange Bowl.

Here is more of Referee’s interview with Southeastern Conference referee Tom Ritter.

REFEREE: What would you say as a referee is your toughest call?

RITTER: You know it’s managing the holding that we see play in play out, and trying to gauge the impact that that hold has on a play and whether or not it’s worthy of a foul.

REFEREE: The rule this year now the quarterback gets I call you call them special protection.

RITTER: Yeah, you get special protection on change of possession. He is considered a defensive player throughout the whole down which would include the return of the interception.

REFEREE: So that I would think if the interception — say it’s interception farther down field, you’re going to be sticking with that quarterback.


REFEREE: What happens when a guy breaks one?

RITTER: Well, we’ve got a decision to make. I mean we have to — our first responsibility is the quarterback, no questions. However, we also may have goal line responsibility. If they break it we have a little bit maybe of point of attack blocks in front of the returner. So we have some split duties. But the quarterback should be our primary focus.

REFEREE: You’re a finger whistle guy, aren’t you?

RITTER: I’m a finger whistle guy. It has its drawbacks and it has its benefits, but I’ve always been a finger whistle guy.

REFEREE: What advice can you give to somebody who may be considering switching to a finger whistle?

RITTER: Well, I just don’t like to have a whistle in my mouth. I talk back there when I’m doing — I actually talk a little bit to myself. But during the play I’ll be saying something about ball’s gone, ball’s gone, and then I’ll be talking to the quarterback or the players saying stay off of him or way to stay off of him. So having a finger whistle benefits in that way. As a referee it’s okay to have a finger whistle. Obviously I don’t have to signal touchdown that often, so that’s a little bit awkward when I do to kill the play and indicate a touchdown. I’ve gotten some interesting comments on one arm signals.

REFEREE: That’s the real downside.

RITTER: That’s the downside. Plus it gives you that split second pause between what you think you saw and then really what you saw. And that comes into play not many times during the season, but every once in a while it comes into play. I had a play last year at Missouri where I would have sworn absolutely on a fumble that went back and muffed and went more and muffed that a player had possession until I got around to the right angle and he did not have possession. And my hand was coming to my mouth. And so that split second that I had enabled me to handle that call properly.

REFEREE: Fans in the SEC are very passionate, they’re very intelligent. And you guys when you’re in a town I’m guessing people look and say, I know who those guys are, seven guys hanging out.

RITTER: When we go out to dinner on Friday nights, yeah, they know exactly who we are. But in almost every case they’re very gracious. They’re interested in what we do. They wish us the best for the next day. So we’ve never had any issues. And then obviously after the game we don’t go out. We stay pretty much locked down after a game. But we go out just about every Friday night before our film session. We go out as a crew. And we try to pick places that are a little bit maybe out of the way. We try not to mingle in the town square, things like that. We go to restaurants that are a little bit remote.

Referee Magazine(This column stemmed from an interview published in the November 2014 issue of Referee Magazine.)

All Sports – Football vs. Baseball

A classic comedy bit compares two of my favorite sports to officiate.


By Jeffrey Stern

Before his wife’s death turned him into a bitter, angry man, George Carlin was one of the funniest men on the planet. Sure, his language was often coarse and his most famous bit was an examination of the seven words that couldn’t be said on television (several of which can now be heard even on network TV). But the man was darn funny.

As a football official and baseball umpire, one of my favorites is Carlin’s bit called “The Differences Between Football and Baseball.” You can find it on YouTube, but here are some of my favorite parts the segments that apply to my officiating.

“Baseball has no time limit. We don’t know how long it’s gonna last. We might have extra innings. Football is rigidly timed and it will end even if we have to go to sudden death.” Neither high school nor college football has sudden death overtime. But that’s picking nits.

He’s right about no time limits in (most) baseball games. I should know. I’ve worked my share of 11-10 games that seem to last six hours. I’ve had only one super-long extra inning games. I believe it was 16 innings. I once worked a three-overtime football game. And one year, I had three overtime games in a row.

“In football, you get a penalty. In baseball, you make an error.” Again, if you choose to be particular, a penalty and an error are vastly different. A penalty affects the game. An error affects the statistics.

Because people often confuse a foul with a penalty, I’m often reminded of the analogy used by CFO National Coordinator of Football Officiating Rogers Redding. Redding has said the foul is the crime and the penalty is punishment. Much like double parking is the no-no and the fine is the price you pay.

Of course, if an official makes an error, it’s a big deal. And the penalty may be loss of a game, a playoff assignment or worse.

“Only in baseball does the manager or coach have to wear the same uniform the players do. Can you picture Bill Parcells in his New York Giants uniform?” We all know budgets are tight at the high school level. Still, baseball coaches are required to wear the team uniform if they occupy the coaching boxes. If the players aren’t wearing shorts (remember those horrible Chicago White Sox uniforms in the 1970s?), the coaches can’t wear shorts. Sweatpants are also a no-no as are blue jeans.

I can’t imagine the same rule applying to football coaches. Would we have to ensure they had legal equipment?

“Baseball begins in the spring — the season of new life. Football begins in the fall when everything is dying.” I happen to like the fall. It’s my favorite season. Spring in these parts is usually slow to arrive. It teases us with nice days followed by chilly ones. It’s hard to know how to dress. It can be 40 when you leave home and 70 at the end of the workday.

Whether it’s what passes for spring around here or late fall, I always thank heaven for the modern undergarments we wear. For me, at least, the cold isn’t as onerous as it was when I started officiating. In those days, I wore so many layers I looked like the Michelin Man. Not a pretty picture.

“Football is played in any kind of weather: rain, sleet, snow, hail, mud, can’t read the numbers on the field, can’t read the yard markers, can’t see the players’ numbers. The struggle will continue. In baseball, if it rains, we don’t come out to play.”

Thanks to artificial turf, football in the rain isn’t as miserable as it is on grass fields. We’ve seen more turf fields spring up in our state in the recent past. When our schedules come out, in addition to looking at the matchups, I look to see which is the home team and whether they have turf or grass. If turf is dominant, I’m a happier camper.

Referee Magazine(Jeffrey Stern is Referee’s senior editor. This column originally appeared in the April 2014 MyReferee.)

Football – The Six-Down Saga

By George Demetriou


Football has not always been a four-down game. Before 1912, each team had only three downs to make a first down. Subsequent to that change, there have been several cases in which a team has been given an extra down or has been shorted. I’ll relate some of those shortly.

To the best of my knowledge, there has never been a case where a team was given six downs, but it almost happened to me. In 1994, I was the referee for a semipro game with a five-man crew. As I walked onto the field for the pregame, I realized I had left my wrist band down indicator in the car and decided it was not worth delaying the game the one or two minutes it would take to get it. I relied on the box for a quarter and a half when near disaster struck.

The play was student body right with the linesman and the entire chain crew disappearing in a mass of humanity. As I waited for the survivors to rise, a gut-wrenching revelation hit me — I didn’t know what the down was. I patiently waited for the box holder to get up and when he did, a big fat “one” was displayed. I had survived, or so I thought.

By now, linesman Scott Taylor had gotten to his feet so I confidently said “Second down” and Scott replied “Second down.” Unknown until after the game was that Scott’s wrist band had gotten knocked off in the assault and he was merely echoing what I was telling him.

I then turned to my trusty umpire, Rulon Frandsen, and repeated, with even more confidence “Second down.” Rulon wears two wrist bands: one black, one white. Very classy. He uses the black one to track the spot of the snap. I believe he uses the white one to count cheerleaders. At least, I don’t think he counts downs on it. Before replying, he looked at both hands, turned them backward and forward and gave me a very weak “OK, second down.”

One more check to go and I was there. I turned to line judge Bob Kachel, thrust out two fingers and shouted “Second down.” I was stunned by his panic-stricken look. Bob immediately came in to the ball, “No, no, fourth down.” I was incredulous, thinking to myself, “Who are you to say fourth down, when everyone else says second?”

Before I could respond, Rulon grabbed my shoulder and said “Look George, they’re in punt formation, it must be fourth down.” So it was, fourth down. The wrist band — don’t leave home without it.

I survived my gaffe, but there have been several prominent down errors that have affected the outcome of games. In 1940, Dartmouth was leading undefeated Cornell, 3-0, late in the fourth quarter. Benefiting from an extra down, Cornell won, 7-3. The mistake was discovered in the film review the following Monday and Cornell promptly forfeited.

A similar occurrence took place in the 1972 Miami-Tulane game. Miami trailed, 21-17, but was allowed a fifth down and scored with 58 seconds remaining to win the game. No forfeit this time.

The NFL is not immune from such errors. Late in the 1968 season, the Los Angeles Rams trailed the Chicago Bears, 17-16, with 58 seconds to play. The Rams drove into field goal range, but ran out of downs and lost their shot at a playoff berth. Several hours after the game, someone realized the Rams had been shortchanged their fourth down.

Then-commissioner Pete Rozelle suspended referee Norm Schachter and his entire crew for the rest of the season. “It was not a mistake in judgment, which might have been excused. It was a mechanical error that should never occur,” Rozelle said.

The most recent down error took place on Oct. 6, 1990. Colorado visited Missouri in a Big Eight (now Big 12) Conference game. With a fifth down on the final play of the game, Colorado scored a touchdown to win, 33-31. Unlike the previous cases, the benefit of the error was not clear. Colorado grounded a pass to conserve time when they were led to believe it was third down (actually fourth) by the downmarker. Colorado might have very well scored on the real fourth down, which was from the same spot as the fifth down.

Nonetheless, referee J.C. Louderback, who was in his final season after a 34-year officiating career, and his entire crew were suspended for one game. Conference commissioner Carl James, who was at the game, imposed the sanctions. “In my opinion, they blew it. … There’s no excuse for it.” Louderback’s comments: “It’s always a tough feeling when a rule, or an error in a rule, becomes a factor in the game. We are human. We erred. And we feel terrible in regards to the circumstances at the end of the game.”

Referee Magazine(George Demetriou has been a football official since 1968. He lives in Colorado Springs, Colo. This column originally appeared in the 11/98 issue of It’s Official. It is archival in nature; rules and other information has not been updated..)

Locked Out

By Jeffrey Stern (Published in the January 2013 issue of Referee Magazine)

*To view the magazine-formatted version of the Lockout story, click HERE

Late on the evening of Sept. 24, 2012, three men enjoy a nightcap at a New York City hotel. On the TV, the Seattle Seahawks and Green Bay Packers are battling it out on “Monday Night Football.” The trio — Scott Green and Jeff Triplette, NFL referees and the president and vice president, respectively, of the NFL Referees Association (NFLRA) and Mike Arnold, the group’s legal counsel — are taking a break from discussions with the NFL aimed at ending the three-month-old lockout of NFL officials.

Their casual discussion comes to a halt when, on the screen, the game ends with one of the most controversial calls in NFL history. Replacement officials rule a simultaneous catch, giving a touchdown to Seattle rather than an interception to Green Bay. Within seconds, their cell phones are buzzing with calls from NFLRA members watching the game, certain that the egregiously incorrect call will hasten their return to the field.

They also take a call from the NFL, confirming that negotiations will resume in the morning. Two days later, the sides reach a tentative agreement on a new eight-year collective bargaining agreement (CBA), ending the lockout.
Here is how it all went down.

The Negotiations

Triplette spoke exclusively to Referee on the record on behalf of the union. Jeff Pash, NFL executive vice president and chief legal counsel, presented the league’s viewpoint. It was one of few interviews he granted.

The two sides began formal negotiations in October 2011. Triplette said the existing CBA called for talks to begin in the spring of 2011, but at that time the league’s focus was on agreeing to a CBA with the NFL Players Association. “When they got that settled in the summer (of 2011),” Triplette said, “we finally got together for our first session.”

Lead negotiators for the officials were Triplette; Green; Arnold; Tim Millis, NFLRA executive director; and back judge Tony Steratore, who serves on the association’s board and its negotiating committee.

Representing the NFL were Pash; Ray Anderson, executive vice president of football operations; David Gardi, NFL legal counsel; F. David Coleman, director of officiating; and Doug O’Connell, vice president of compensation and benefits. Carl Johnson, vice president of officiating, was not part of the negotiating team because it is not part of his duties. “Similar to coaches not negotiating player contracts,” explained Greg Aiello, NFL senior vice president of communications.

Others, including Commissioner Roger Goodell and representatives of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, sat in at various times as well.

Pash also represented the league in the two previous negotiations with the NFLRA. The last CBA, signed in 2006, was achieved with relative ease. The 2012 situation was similar to 2001, when the league locked out the officials and replacements took the field.

“The thing about 2001 is it was overshadowed by the (9/11) terrorist attacks,” Pash said. “We had the terrorist attacks early in the regular season, then we took a week off, and … in that two-week interim, we reached an agreement with the (NFLRA) to bring them back.”

As in any CBA, compensation was a part of the 2012 discussions. In particular, the officials’ game fees and the type of pension were at issue. But that was the tip of the iceberg.

“Economic issues tend to dominate the discussion, on the outside, at least,” Pash said. “But from the perspective of the owners, the non-economic issues were actually more important. Those included things like the proposal we had to hire some number of full-time officials (and) the proposal we had to hire additional officials to sort of serve as a bench, if you will, as a training development tool.”

The “reserve squad” was a contentious issue. According to (PFT), Anderson broached the topic at a Sept. 4 meeting with NBC producers and broadcasters.

Arnold responded to that report by contacting PFT via email. “The concept of hiring an additional 21 officials was raised for the first time by the NFL by a letter dated July 19, 2012,” Arnold wrote. “It proposed that the NFL could hire 21 additional officials but not pay them — it wants the current 121 officials to pay them. This is not fair or reasonable and demonstrates that it is a negotiating ploy not a serious proposal.”

The NFLRA also desired codification of issues apart from finances. “We spent a good bit of time talking about the training program that had started under Bill Lovett, and preserving and enhancing that program for existing officials,” Triplette said.

The training program is under the auspices of nine former NFL officials, covering each officiating position and representing a combined 265 years of total service. Prominent on the training staff are legendary referees Jerry Markbreit and Red Cashion.

“All of these retired NFL officials were kind of a confidential training resource for officials on the field,” Triplette said. “So that if you had a problem or you wanted to talk to someone that wasn’t a supervisor and evaluating you, there were some folks that had great expertise. We wanted to be able to continue that program.”

While Triplette said the league didn’t indicate it wanted to eliminate the trainers, there was discussion about modifying the program.

“The league felt, ‘If we’re paying for this, we at least ought to have some input into who the trainers are,’” Triplette said. “They had some ideas how they wanted it to evolve, and of course we had some other ideas. Our big one was to preserve the confidentiality, and make sure there were no written reports. The training program was not something that would be used to figure out how you terminate somebody.”

Another sticking point was an NFLRA proposal to remove Goodell from the loop when it comes to disputes involving officials.

“The commissioner … has a very significant authority with respect to disciplinary matters, and with respect to dispute resolution,” Pash said. “There were proposals basically to eliminate that authority or very sharply limit it in certain contexts. That was something that was just not going to be acceptable to our ownership, because they felt as though everyone should be operating under a common set of rules — owners, coaches, team staff and game officials. They were not prepared to change that simply for one category of employee, so that was a significant issue that we had to work our way through.”

The sides met periodically throughout the fall and winter. Storm clouds began to form in spring of 2012. The NFLRA negotiating committee met with owners Arthur Blank (Atlanta Falcons), Bob McNair (Houston Texans) and Clark Hunt (Kansas City Chiefs).

“The meeting didn’t last very long,” Triplette recalled. “Both sides had stated their positions, and at that point it looked like we were pretty far apart on some pretty significant issues.”
The CBA expired on May 31. The lockout was on.

The Replacements

The NFL began looking for replacements before the lockout began. ESPN reported that Ron Baynes, officiating recruitment coordinator, sent an email to scouts on May 3, directing them to contact collegiate officials who had either retired or who had not been rehired by their leagues, or other potential candidates. Ironically, Baynes was looking to hire officials to step in for his sons, Rusty and Allen, who were among the locked-out NFL officials.

According to Aiello, “We began the process of hiring and training replacements to ensure that there would be no disruption to NFL games. … The non-union officials were all experienced football officials at various levels.”

Before the season, Green gave a warning. He told USA Today, “The folks that are going to be on the field are not NFL-quality officials that fans, players and coaches are used to seeing. … If calls aren’t being made, there will probably be additional things going on out on the field and that potentially could lead to … player-safety issues.”

Most of the replacements in 2001 were officials from the major collegiate conferences. The NFL could not dip into those ranks this time, in large measure because several of the coordinators of the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) conferences are current or former NFL officials. To assist the NFL by signing on as a replacement would mean losing 2012 assignments and possibly beyond.

Each replacement signed an officiating agreement dated June 2, 2012, that included the following provisions:

  • $5,000 if the official attended league training clinics, passed a physical and passed a background check.• $500 per day for each clinic or training camp session attended.
  • $2,000 per preseason game. An official who worked a preseason game was guaranteed three more game fees. (For the regular season, replacements signed a different contract. Game fees for the regular season were raised to $3,500 for referees, $3,000 for the other six officials and $2,000 for alternates.)
  • Coach airfare, ground transportation, hotel rooms and $75 per diem.
  • Two tickets per game.
  • Two hats, two shirts (one long-sleeved, one short-sleeved), one pair of officiating pants, a pair of shoes, flags and beanbags. (The agreement specified the replacements were to return those items when their employment ended. The league later rescinded that order.)

In July, the NFL conducted three training clinics for the replacements, two in Dallas, one in Atlanta. There were approximately 300 applicants.

Starting with the preseason, to help the replacements navigate the NFL’s complicated penalty enforcements and timing rules, the league put an eighth official, another replacement, on the sideline. Information and instruction from a member of the NFL officiating department stationed in the press box was relayed to the onfield officials through the alternate, who was outfitted with a headset.

When training camps opened, the NFL issued a memo to players, coaches and other team personnel that it was “imperative that your entire staff welcomes these officials and provides them with an environment that maximizes their training opportunities and encourages their development.” The memo also had talking points — scripted responses — that could be used when comments on the lockout were sought by the media.

Criticism of the replacements began right after the preseason opener. In an interview on WSCR-AM in Chicago, Fox Sports officiating analyst and former NFL vice president of officiating Mike Pereira had pointed comments about one referee in particular.

“They’ve tried to say that Craig Ochoa, who worked the (Hall of Fame) game, was a (major college) official, that he worked in the Big Ten,” Pereira said. “He didn’t work in the Big Ten. He’s not been a major college official.”

Ochoa is the highway commissioner for the township of Hanover, Ill. His biography on its website lists him as a “professional football and basketball referee working mostly in the Big 10 Football Conference.”

The Big Ten Conference confirmed that Ochoa was never a member of its football officiating staff.

Aiello told ESPN that the replacements “have backgrounds similar to current NFL officials.”

Arnold, in the same story, disputed those assertions: ”It is unfortunate that as referees’ responsibilities are expanded that the NFL would jeopardize player health and safety and the integrity of the game by seeking amateur, under-qualified referees to administer professional games.”

Pereira added that further proof of Ochoa’s unfitness to work in the NFL was that he had been fired from the Lingerie Football League (LFL), a circuit featuring scantily clad women playing an indoor version of the game. LFL Commissioner Mitchell Mortaza didn’t name names but released a statement that read in part, “Due to several onfield occurrences of incompetent officiating, we chose to part ways with a couple (officials who) apparently are now officiating in the NFL.”

Another hire that raised eyebrows  was the selection of Shannon Eastin, who became the first woman to officiate an NFL game. In her 16 years as an official, the highest level she had worked was the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference, a Football Championship Subdivision league one step below the Football Bowl Subdivision.

But what alarmed many was the fact that Eastin was a professional gambler. She had participated in a number of tournaments, including a 17th-place finish in an event during the 2007 World Series of Poker. The CBA that expired in May included a prohibition against gambling by officials. The subject was not covered in the agreement with replacements. But in this post-Tim Donaghy world, the idea of even a replacement official with a gambling history led many to question whether Eastin should be working in the NFL.

The league was aware of Eastin’s gambling. Michael Signora, NFL vice president of football communications, told PFT, “Past participation in an event such as a poker tournament does not disqualify a person from consideration as an NFL official.”

Two other officials came under fire for perception problems. Jeff Sadorus worked a Seattle game although he had been on the team’s payroll as an official for scrimmages. There is no evidence that Sadorus showed favoritism to the Seahawks in the game. Brian Strapolo was pulled from his New Orleans-Carolina assignment on gameday because his Facebook page indicated he was an unabashed Saints fan.

Referee requested an interview with the NFL’s Anderson for information on the selection, training and qualifications of the replacements, but the request was declined.

The Regular Season

The replacements received kudos from the top for their work in the first week of the regular season. “Our officials did a more than adequate job last night,” Goodell said after the Thursday night season opener. “I think we’ve proven we can train officials, get them up to NFL standards, and we’ve done that in a three-month period. These officials will get even better as time goes by.”

As the rest of the first week played out, TV announcers, while not effusive in their praise, did not heap criticism on the replacements, either. After the lockout ended, however, at least one analyst said that was by design.

On Dan Patrick’s radio show, Fox’s John Lynch said the NFL encouraged broadcast teams to “go easy” on the officials. “I know Week 1 the league kind of duped every network and called and said, ‘Hey we’re close to a deal so have your guys go easy,’” Lynch said. “And so that was kind of the edict from up top.”

But as the season progressed and the lockout dragged on, the era of good feeling came to an abrupt halt. Calls were dissected, scrutinized and ultimately demonized by fans, media, coaches and players.

Emotions boiled over during games on Sept. 23. New England Coach Bill Belichick was fined $50,000 for making contact with an official following his team’s loss to Baltimore and Washington Offensive Coordinator Kyle Shanahan was fined $25,000 for chasing officials off the field after the Redskins’ loss to Cincinnati. Other coaches were shown on telecasts berating officials, though none was fined.

That led the league to issue a memo reminding teams that unsportsmanlike conduct would not be tolerated. Anderson told ESPN, “We contacted them to remind them that everyone has a responsibility to respect the game. We expect it to be adhered to this weekend and forevermore.”

Play became increasing rough in the intervening weeks. Some of the hits were flagged and others were not. The perceived inability of the replacements to control the games led the NFL Players Association (NFLPA) to send two letters to the league, urging a resolution to the lockout.

A letter to Pash dated Sept. 5 from Tom DePaso, NFLPA general counsel, asserted the NFLRA would “take appropriate action to protect our members” if the union determined the replacements could not ensure the health and safety of the players.

A second missive, titled, “Your Lockout of the NFL Referees and the Negative Impact on Football,” was posted Sept. 23. NFLPA President Domonique Foxworth and New Orleans quarterback and NFLPA vice president Drew Brees were among those signing the letter, which read in part, “Your decision to lock out officials with more than 1,500 years of collective NFL experience has led to a deterioration of order, safety and integrity.”

The NFL’s Johnson declined a request to discuss the evaluation and performance of the replacements. However, Pash said the league was pleased. “Our own perception is that the replacements performed really in an entirely satisfactory way, and about what you would expect,” he said. “I think no one could have possibly expected them to perform at the level of the regulars. We certainly didn’t.”

The Salvos

Pash and Triplette acknowledged the negotiations had a sharper, nastier edge than those in 2006. “Sometimes in a negotiation things get said, and you probably wish they hadn’t been said,” Triplette said. “I think both sides probably had some of those on occasion.”

For the most part, NFLRA members avoided public comment on all things lockout. “We decided early on that it was probably best that Mike Arnold be the principal spokesperson for us,” Triplette said. “We made sure that those were strategic in nature and very specific when we wanted to have that happen,” Triplette added. “It’s more or less along the lines of controlling the message that we wanted to convey, and having a single person do that for us.“

The NFL wanted the nine position trainers — Markbreit, Cashion, Ron Botchan, Ben Montgomery, Dean Look, Tom Fincken, Bill Schmitz, Jim Quirk and Sid Semon — to assist in the clinics. But when they refused out of loyalty to the NFLRA members, they were told their services were no longer needed.

When word of that action broke, Markbreit was besieged by interview requests. The trainers are not voting NFLRA members and thus had no official spokesman. Markbreit became the de facto voice of the trainers as well as the union and sharply criticized the league for the lockout. His strongest comments appeared in an interview with USA Today published Sept. 21. Markbreit said the replacements’ inability to keep games under control jeopardized player safety. “My only conclusion,” Markbreit said, “is that (NFL executives) just don’t care.”

Negative comments were being issued by the league as well. PFT reported that at the aforementioned September meeting with TV personnel, Anderson claimed some officials become complacent once they know they won’t get a postseason assignment and that, while some officials are in condition when the season begins, they gain weight and fall out of shape by the end.

Anderson wrote a guest editorial for the Sept. 26 edition of USA Today. Anderson offered that the “short-term discomfort” caused by the player lockout of 2011 led to a harmonious settlement. “We have approached the dispute with the game officials union with a similar game plan to achieve long-term stability and improve our officiating,” Anderson wrote.

Anderson took aim at the NFLRA members when he added, “No one wants to see the outcome of a game determined by an official’s call, but it has happened several times in the past. Officiating is never perfect.”

On Sept. 24, it was far from perfect, and it resulted in the most talked-about and debated call in recent memory.

The Call

Week 3 of the season concluded with that nationally televised game between Green Bay and Seattle. Green Bay held a 12-7 lead with eight seconds remaining in the game. Seattle had the ball, fourth and 10, at the Packer 24 yardline.

Seahawks quarterback Russell Wilson took a shotgun snap, dropped back, then sprinted to his left. As the final seconds ticked off the clock, he heaved a pass to the end zone. In football parlance, it’s known as a Hail Mary: throw the ball and pray a teammate catches it.

In the end zone were four Green Bay defenders and two Seattle receivers. As the ball neared the cluster of players, Seattle’s Golden Tate gave Packer Sam Shields a two-handed shove from behind, sending Shields to the ground. Green Bay’s M.D. Jennings, the player in the rear of the grouping, leaped and got his hands on the ball. Tate in effect caught Jennings, wrapping his arms around the opponent and getting at least a partial grip on the ball.

Side judge Lance Easley arrived at the pile a few seconds ahead of back judge Derrick Rhone-Dunn. Easley looked at the pile, glanced at Rhone-Dunn and threw his hands in the air to signal a touchdown. At the same instant, Rhone-Dunn gave the stop-the-clock signal. While time had expired, that signal is proper when an official believes he and a crewmate need to confer before arriving at a decision. Bedlam broke out with Jennings and Tate still grappling while Seattle players swarmed the end zone to congratulate their teammate.

Instant replay is used on all scoring plays; thus, the call was subject to being reversed. However, referee Wayne Elliott determined there was no indisputable visual evidence to overturn the call on the field. The touchdown stood and Seattle won.

The NFL released a statement three days after the game, affirming the call but noting that Tate should have been called for offensive pass interference for shoving Shields.

Despite the NFL’s affirmation, few non-Seahawk fans believed it was a correct call. For the next 48 hours, it was impossible to watch TV, pick up a newspaper or turn on the radio without seeing or hearing about the call.

Not only was Easley seen over and over covering the play, he later made appearances on The NFL Today and the Today Show. Any time he has been interviewed, he has maintained his call was correct.

The national outrage reached a fever pitch. Ending the lockout became not so much a wish as a demand.

The Agreement

Negotiations had been ongoing for more than a week before a final deal was struck.

“We had been meeting I would say for the better part of 10 days,” Pash said, “close to on a daily basis, either meeting or phone conversations. My own feeling is that we were very likely — not 100 percent — but we were very likely to come to an agreement that week.”

Triplette agreed, saying, “We were in very sensitive negotiations prior to that Monday night. … We were on the road to probably reaching an agreement. Was it the agreement that we ended up with? That’s hard to say.”

In a nutshell, these are the key points of the new CBA:

  • Five-year continuation of the defined benefit retirement plan.
  • A ratification bonus of $2.5 million to be distributed based on seniority, either as a 401k deposit or cash. The payment equaled what the league saved by using non-union officials.
  • An average defined contribution of $22,000, based on seniority, starting in 2017 and continuation of the current 401k match contribution of $3,750 per year.
  • Hiring of seven NFLRA members as full-time employees. “In terms of who the full-time officials will be, that’s up in the air,” Pash said. “I don’t know who they are at this point. I would expect it’s much more likely that it will be implemented for the 2013 season.”
  • Continuation of the trainer program in its previous form.
  • Formation of a labor-management team to handle disputes and work together on officiating improvement.

There will be a “reserve list” of officials, but they will be officials identified as future prospects. Triplette said the idea of sitting “struggling” officials died. “Officials don’t get better sitting on the sidelines. You also don’t sit down Peyton Manning when he throws three interceptions. When it got serious in the last week, I think the commissioner came to the realization that we, just like him, want to see the game get better. There are ways we can do this without using a hammer.”

The agreement is for eight years, longer than any previous CBA. Both sides see benefits in that.

“The league wanted a longer term deal than we wanted, but we got some things that we wanted in exchange for that longer term deal,” Triplette said. “The league has … stability, and our members have stability in knowing this thing is not going to last just five or six years.”

Said Pash, “We’re more and more moving toward longer term deals with key partners and participants in our business. I think, frankly, we would’ve signed a longer deal if they had wanted to. It would give us enough time so that everyone could get their blood pressure back to a normal level before we had to gear up for another round of negotiations, and also because we had a longer term deal it allowed us to say to our ownership, we can go another year or so on maintaining the pension plan in place to allow a longer period of time to transition out.”

The league was able to get the NFLRA to back off its demand that Goodell be taken out of the officials’ discipline loop. Triplette said the union wanted those cases heard by someone more independent of the league heirarchy as opposed to the man at the top. But practicality ruled the day in that case. “The commissioner said, ‘I don’t understand why we’re spending time on this. I’ve been the commissioner six years and I’ve never heard one of these grievances,’” Triplette recalled.

The CBA had yet to be approved by the NFLRA members, but the association’s board unanimously endorsed it. Goodell insisted that, in order to reach an accord, the regular officials had to work all Week 4 games, including the one the next night in Baltimore. That posed a potential problem for both sides. If the NFLRA did not ratify the CBA at its Sept. 28-29 meeting in Dallas, seven members would have worked while the others remained sidelined. The league could have faced a situation in which NFL officials worked one game but replacements worked the other 14. Moreover, with a Saturday vote, the league would not have had time to dispatch replacements to cover the remaining games.

Gene Steratore’s crew was assigned the Thursday game, in part because of proximity and convenience; he could drive from his home near Pittsburgh to Baltimore. Some other members of his crew, however, were unable to work due to business or other commitments. Several late-night phone calls were made and the openings were filled.

“(The NFL) had identified several crews that were in close proximity, where most of the crew members could probably get there on an early morning flight to get to the game site,” Triplette said.

Steratore and his crew were greeted with a thunderous standing ovation from more than 70,000 fans. Two days later, the officials approved the CBA by a 112-5 vote.

The replacements were paid for Week 4 despite the settlement. They returned home to work high school or college games. Many, like Easley, did interviews to describe the experience. When asked by The New York Times about the criticism heaped upon the replacements, Sadorus evoked a higher power. “Everyone wanted perfection,” he said, “but come on. The last guy who was perfect, they nailed to a cross. And he wasn’t even an official.”

The Aftermath

There was joy and relief among the officials that they were going back to work, but there was anger and bitterness as well. Anderson, whose comments throughout the lockout infuriated the NFLRA, was not greeted warmly in Dallas.

An official at the meeting, who requested anonymity, said Anderson’s comments kept the union unified and committed to its positions. And the hard feelings toward him will not go away any time soon.

“Ray spoke when we voted on the ratification and we came back on that Saturday morning for the vote,” the official said. “Immediately after the vote they had a mini clinic for a couple of hours. He spoke at the beginning of that clinic, and there was dead silence in the room. That tells you all you need to know.”

PFT reported it is likely Anderson will be reassigned and given different responsibilities which do not include officiating. Referee was unable to speak to Anderson to confirm or deny that report.

As in Baltimore on that Thursday night, fans in other cities greeted the regular officials with applause and signs welcoming them back. The Oct. 8 issue of Sports Illustrated heralded the settlement with a cover photo and feature story on uberbuff referee Ed Hochuli. The cover carried the line, “Oh, Now You Love Us.” Indeed, those inside and outside the game were pleased to see NFLRA members return to the field. From Triplette’s view, that includes the NFL.

“In my opinion, they have a better appreciation for what we do,” he said. “They were very complimentary even before the lockout of our work and what we do. It wasn’t that we were bad. In the end, everybody probably learned something out of this.

“We learned that we have to do a good job and a better job of not only working the game on the field, but also helping folks understand the difficulty of what our job is,” Triplette added. “It’s like in anything: When you do it well, folks get accustomed to you doing it well and they don’t appreciate how well someone does it until you don’t do it anymore.”

Jeffrey Stern is senior editor of Referee. He is a veteran high school and college football official.

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